Lodhra was been considered as a very useful drug in therapeutical aspect even from the ancient periods. Therefore we get the references of this particular in the great treaties like Charakasamhitha, Susruthasamhitha, Astangasangraha and in Yogarathnakara. All the above treatises says the useful part as its bark itself and bark is prescribed in the treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting. In the Snake bite, it is given internally in the form of Choorna or in the form of Kashaya.
According to Chakradatta the paste composed of Lodhrathwak, rasot, tubers of cyperus rotundus and Madhu is applied on the gums for the bleeding from the gums. This Lodhra is even a constituent of a plaster or Lepa used to promote the maturation of boils and other malignant growths. Amruthasagara recommends the following application for Ophthalmic – Lodhrathwak liquorice root, burnt alum and rasot equal parts taken and rub in to a paste with water. This paste is applied around the eyes.
Botanical name-Symplocos racemosa
Kannada:Balalodduginamara / Pachetta
1.Rodhra-Runadhi vranam ithi rodhra:
2Thiret-Thirayathi rogan ithi thireet
3Thilwa-Thilathi Snihyathi Angamanenethi thilwa
4Kramuka-Kramathi gachathi Kashayatham ithi Kramuka
5Pattikakhya patti-Pattoakhyath ithi Patti-Pattika cha Lodhra ayam
6Lodhra-Runadhi Avrunothi malam Kaphapittadeen rakthapittadisyam rogam
GANA / VARGA
Charaka-Sonitha sthapana, Sandhaneeya, Varnya, Kashaya skanda
Susrutha-Pureesha samgrahaneeya, Lodhradi, Nyagrodhadi
Dhanvanthari Nigantu-Chandanadi varga
Raja Nigantu-Pippalyadi varga
Habitat:Lodhra has been most commonly found in the Poorvothara Pradesha of Bharath, mainly in the planes and lower hills of Bengal, Assam, Burma & dry forest of chota Nagpur.
Habit:Lodhra is a moderate sized tree or shrub about 25 feet height.
Bark:Fibrous, dark grey coloured, thick and also spongy.
Leaves:Leaves are simple, alternate, ovate or elliptic it is having serrate margin, glabrous & lanceolate, coriacious, obscurely crenate having 4 to 6 blades.
Flowers:Cymose inflorescence, fragrant, slightly yellowish white in Colour, Pedicels as long as calyx tube and stames are about 100 in number.
Fruits:Fruits are globose or cylindrical in shape, drupe, 1 to 1.3 cm long and purplish black in colour.
Seeds:Seeds are 1 to 3 in number.
I. According to Ksheera svami
II.According to some texts
1)Sabara Lodhra – symplocos racemosa
2)Pattika Lodhra – symplocos crataegoides
The part of the Dravya in which veerya is more uthkrushta that part is used in the treatment. Even though all plants are medicinal, value of medicinal part is entirely different.
In morphology even though all parts of plants are linked with one another where it comes to medicinal preparations never use all parts of the plant together.
Useful part Lodhra : twak
Consideration of a drug is very important to achieve the desired result and to maintain the concentration of drug in blood.
In condition where rogabala and rogeebala are more and if we are given Aushadha in alpamathra it will not have effect on the roga. In condition where rogabala is less and rogi is balavan then if we are giving Aushadha in bahumathra then it causes Upadravas.
Hence the dose may be regulated that the drug may produce desired effect but may not harm the dhathu. It should be decided according to the condition of disease and the patient.
Mathra of Lodhra are
Choorna – 1 to 2 gm
Kwatha – 50 to 100 ml
Small recurved pieces of varying sizes and thickness, outer surface buff to brownish, longitudinally wrinkled and bearing horizontal lenticels, inner surface brownish, rough and scaty fracture, short and granular, taste acrid and bitter.
Transverse section of dried stem bark shows cork consisting of 4-12 rows of tangentially elongated cells, radial 15-45m tangential 30-60m cork cambium consist of a row of thin walled tangentially elongated cells, secondary cortex usually wide, parenchymatous, interspersed with stands of stone cells. Stone cells are rectangular to oval with numerous pits often containing prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate, non lignified pericyclic fibers upto 52 mm thick present in bark. Secondary phloem wide consisting of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma and stone cells. Stone cells arranged in tangential rows in concentric manner associated with crystal sheath containing prism of calcium oxalate, medularry rays mostly bi or tri serrate early uniserrate becoming wide towards outer part and consist of thin walled radially elongated parenchymatous cells, Medullary ray near stone cells become sclerosed.
Bark having a pinkish colour, it also contain ash which contain carbonite of soda, a large quantity of red colouring matter but no tannin.
Charaka described phalini and mulini dravyas followed by three plants whose barks are used Poothika, Krishnagandha and thilwaka. He further quoted Poothika and thilwaka far purgation. Bapalalji considered thilwaka as the synonym of Lodhra.
Lodhra bark is used by the traditional practitioners and described in the text is grahi in nature. Where as thilwaka is considered as Rechaka. Therefore both the drugs are different and may be of two varieties of Lodhra. Bahavamisra accepted the second variety of Lodhra with red bark as purgative. On the other hand Charaka already high–lighted the importance of thilwaka in purgation in the thilwaka kalpa. It appears finally that the synonyms thilwaka and thilaka at later times definitely created confusion between thilwaka and Lodhra.
GUNA - KARMA
Even though drugs have some active principles with which they work, they have some other fractions also. Ayurveda propounds the principles of rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka. Karma and prabhava and attributes the action of a drug to any one of the rasa, guna, veerya, vipaka, prabhava etc.
Guna-Karma Lodhra are,
Bahya-Sothahara, Kushtagana, Vranaropana, Sankochaka
Rakthavaha samsthana-Rakthasthambhana, Rakthasoshaka, Sothahara
Prajanana samsthana-Garbhashaya sotha and Srava Shanthikara
Lodhra is mainly act as Sthambhaka. It’s main action is Pradaraghna. Important prayoga of drug Lodhra are,
v Garbhashaya sotha,
v Garbhasaya srava
v Yoniroga, Yonikshatha
That which bears Ausha is known as Aushadha and by this Ausha we will get Arogya. Therefore any substances or mixture of substances intended to be used internally or externally for the preservation and strengthening of health and for prevention and cure of disease is Aushadhi.
Bark of Lodhra is useful in bowel complaints such as diarrhoea, dysentry etc and also in dropsy, eye diseases, liver complaints, fever, ulcer, scorpion sting etc. In Bombay the bark is often employed in the preparation of plasters and is supposed to promote resolution of inflammatory masses. In fever, dysentery and liver complaints, It is used in the form of compound decoction and infusion. A decoction of the bark or wood is used as a gargle for giving firmness to spongy and bleeding gums and in relaxed uvula. In bleeding gums and all, a paste composed of Lodhra bark, rasot, tubers of cyperus rotundus and honey is applied to the gums. It is one of the constituent of a plaster used to promote maturation of boils and other malignant growth.
The drugs of Lodhra are,
Evon Syrup – used in premenstrual syndrone
Ashowin- used in menstrual disorders
Gynocare – used in menometrorrhagia
Asholin – used in Amenorrhoa
Purabhi – used in case of infertility
Various researches are done to know more about the important use of drug Lodhra by various research workers, they are as follows:
Glycosides from symplocos spicate showed spasmolytic activity and curare like activity (Rao YV-1983)
Symplocos racemosa and piper cubeda together administered to patients suffering from spermatorrhoea have shown significant improvement in a clinical study (Kabiraj T.K – 1989).
It is proved to be very effective in the management of swethapradara (leucorrhoea) in a clinical study (Jain T – 1989)
In another clinical study the utility of Lodhra in the management of menorrhagea (Sharma –1988)
Thursday, December 13, 2007